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I. The Bible is a remarkable book.

The Bible as literature — translated, etc.

      Copies sold

      Effect on other literature

      Diversity of literature




-of theme

-of structure

-of teaching

-of emphasis

Trustworthiness in history.

Theories change, facts do not!

Accuracy of the Old Testament:

-sacred book of Jews and Christians

-topographical and geographical trustworthiness


exact representations of reality

             -ethnological correctness

e.g.= Genesis 10 The Assyrian civilization, so Semitic came out of the non-Semitic Babylonia

            Canaan was Hamitic, but Semitic with a Semitic language cf. Gezer


Egyptians and Assyrian chronology, interwoven with the Hebrew.


Joshua 1:4, Hittites

Integrity of its texts.

 Text of the Old Testament.

 accuracy by scribes (counting)


Syriac, Jerome, etc.

LXX, Samaritan Pentateuch

 Text of the New Testament.

 Almost 6,000 manuscripts

 Extent of revelation. (Beyond human discovery.)


    II. Internal Claim of the Bible for Itself

    Thousands of passages: Dt. 6:6-9; 17-18; Joshua 1:8, etc. 2 Tim. 2:15; 3:15-17, etc.

    III. Arguments for the truth of the Bible

    A PRIORI argument

    Indestructibility of the Bible.

    Diocletian, 303 A.D., demanded every copy of the Bible be destroyed by fire.

    Fulfilled prophecy.


    IV. Revelation

    It is important to distinguish between:

    Revelation and reason

    Revelation and inspiration

    Revelation and illumination (1 Co 2:12)

    Forms of revelation:



    The written word

    partial, Dt. 29:29

    complete in facts revealed, Co. 2:9,10


    final, Jude 3

    V. Canonicity

    Not by age

    Numbers 21:14; Joshua 10:13

    Not by language

    A book is canonical because it is inspired.






    The Church is the determiner of the canon The church is the discoverer of the canon
    The church is the mother of the canon. The church is the child of the canon.
    The church is the magistrate of the canon. The church is the minister of the canon.
    The church is the regulator of the canon. The church is the recognizer of the


    How discovered?

    Is it authoritative?

    Is it prophetic? – by a man of God

    Is it authentic? – tell the truth

    Was it received?

    Was it dynamic?


    Jesus as well as all of the New Testament writers never quoted the Apocrypha once.

    Josephus did not list them as canon. A.D. 30-100.

    Philo never quoted from them. 20 B.C. – A.D. 40

    The Jewish scholars of Jamnia (A.D. 90) did not recognize them.

    No canon or council of the Christian Church for the first four centuries recognized the Apocrypha as inspired.

    Many of the great fathers of the early Church spoke out against them (Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem, Athanasius, Jerome (340-420)

    Many Roman Catholic scholars through the Reformation period rejected them.

    Reformers rejected them.

    Not until A.D. 1546 in the counter Reformation of Trent, did the Apocrypha receive full canon status by the Roman Catholic Church.

    only twelve of fifteen books were accepted.

    prayers for dead (II Mac. 12:44-45)

    – II Esdras — against prayers for the dead (7:105)


    Prayers for dead, II Mac. 12:44-45

    Salvation by works, Tobit 12:9

    Suicide sanctioned – II Mac. 14:41-46

    Murder encouraged

    Alms giving. Eccl. 3:30

    Neo Gnosticism


    Weakness of style.

    Legendary and contains many stories which are absurd.

    -e.g. Tobit 1:7f, demon and lover

    Most of the Apocrypha was written in the post-Biblical, inter-testamental period.

    Never had a place in the Hebrew canon.

    Inspiration never claimed by the writers, disclaimed by some.

    They are entirely without the prophetic element (prophets had ceased).

    New Testament Canon


    Universally accepted by the Church



    New Testament itself:

    2 Peter 3:15-16

    Co. 4 :16

    1 Th. 5:17

    1 Ti. 5:18

    VI. Reasons why canon is necessary.

    Absolute criterion.

    Word of God in writing.

    Preserve writings.

    Know the limits of the inspired writings.


    VII. Closing of the canon.

    Hebrews 1:1-3

    Re 22:18,19 “Prophecy”


    Factual comparison.